Archives of Ask A Scientist!
About "Ask A Scientist!"
On September 17th, 1998 the Ithaca Journal ran its first "Ask A Scientist!" article in which Professor Neil Ashcroft , who was then the director of CCMR, answered the question "What is Jupiter made of?" Since then, we have received over 1,000 questions from students and adults from all over the world. Select questions are answered weekly and published in the Ithaca Journal and on our web site. "Ask A Scientist!" reaches more than 21,000 Central New York residents through the Ithaca Journal and countless others around the world throught the "Ask a Scientist!" web site.
Across disciplines and across the state, from Nobel Prize winning scientist David Lee to notable science education advocate Bill Nye, researchers and scientists have been called on to respond to these questions. For more than seven years, kids - and a few adults - have been submitting their queries to find out the answer to life's everyday questions.
The explanation that is most likely right is that, even well below the freezing point of water (or the melting point of ice, which is the same), there is a thin film of liquid water on the ice surface, which acts as a lubricant for the skate blade. The existence of such a liquid layer was already inferred in the mid-nineteenth century by the great British chemist and physicist Michael Faraday. Both theory and experiment now agree that ice "pre-melts", that is, that such a layer forms at temperatures well below the melting point of ice. The layer thickens as the temperature goes up and as the real melting point is approached. At that point the whole solid mass, not only its surface, becomes liquid. Going in the other direction, getting colder, the liquid surface layer gets thinner, which is consistent with skating being noticeably harder when it is very cold (as my ice-skating friends tell me!).
The reason the question had been debated for so long is that there were two other competing theories. One, now almost entirely discredited, is the theory that proposed the liquid layer at the ice surface not to form spontaneously, as is now believed, but rather by
"pressure melting". It is the case that ice can be made to melt under high pressure, but no reasonable estimate of the pressure on the ice surface exerted by a person on a skate blade is great enough to make ice melt at the very low temperatures, even down to 30 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, at which skating is still possible. The other rival explanation, melting due to heating by friction between the skate blade and the ice surface, probably does contribute some, but does not explain why ice is slippery even when the skater is standing still. So, we are left with "pre-melting".
A nice article on this subject is "Why is Ice Slippery?", by Robert Rosenberg, in the December 2005 issue of Physics Today.
- Why do baseball bats sting you when you hit a baseball?
- What material is flame made of?
- If a person stands on a circular rotating stand, facing away from the centre with arms outstretched holding a spinning bicycle wheel and tilts the wheel to once side this causes the stand they are standing on to rotate. My questions are: Why is this? Does it make a difference which way the bicycle wheel is spinning? Will the bicycle wheel's momentum be effected by the spin of the stand the person is stood on? For the strongest anti-clockwise pull on the stand should the wheel be angled by raising the right hand and lowering the left(tilting), or pushing forward the right hand and drawing back the left (turning).
- If there is a flash of light inside of a cube, whose walls are all mirrors on the inside will the light keep reflecting off of every wall infinitely? Or will it just go away? What will happen?
- What causes certain sounds to be unique even though they are on the same frequency?
- Why do drops of water cling to glass?
- How are submarines able to go down so deep under the water, and then surface?
- Is jello an amorphous solid? If not, what is it?
- Why does a nuclear bomb create so much energy with such a small amount of mass? Why is there so much nuclear fallout with such a small amount of nuclear material in the bomb?
- If solids, like glass and ice, are made of tightly packed molecules, how can we see through them?